Belgium has also been the battleground of European powers, earning the moniker "the Battlefield of Europe", a reputation reinforced in the 20th century by both world wars.
France reached its political and military zenith in the early 19th century under Napoleon Bonaparte, subjugating much of continental Europe and establishing the First French Empire.
Various Germanic tribes have inhabited the northern parts of modern Germany since classical antiquity. A region named Germania was documented before AD 100.
In the early medieval era, Christianity, Islam, Judaism, and Zoroastrianism became established on India's southern and western coasts.
Italian explorers discovered new routes to the Far East and the New World, helping to usher in the European Age of Discovery.
One of the oldest countries in Europe, its territory has been continuously settled, invaded and fought over since prehistoric times.
A major country of the Age of Discovery, Spain began the conquest of the New World in 1492, giving rise to the Spanish Empire.